Preclinical Imaging Center, Gedeon Richter Plc., Budapest, Hungary, Affiliation constant low-dose therapy because in the case of controller-based administration, the control signal (administration dose) can vary from zero to the maximum tolerable dose according to the perceived tumor volume. PLoS ONE 10(11): Several studies have investigated the effectiveness of bevacizumab therapy according to different types of cancer [3]: lung cancer [4, 5], breast cancer [68], colon cancer [9], renal cell carcinoma [10], gastric cancer [11], pancreatic cancer [12], prostate cancer [13] and melanoma [14]. Considering the possibility of precise tumor volume determination and the effective quasi-continuous drug administration, it opens a new treatment choice based on closed-loop control. No, Is the Subject Area "Mathematical models" applicable to this article? The volume calculation algorithm relies on the surface interpolated based on the surrounding healthy tissue. 15, 115121 (2009). The caliper mean-percent-error is 10.6%, nearly twice that of the scanners mean-percent-error of 4.6%. Accuracy of Optical Imaging for Measuring Tumor Burden In Vivo . The volume above the red area is not occupied by the tumor, as seen in Figure 8. We have found in our previous study [32] that measurements without contrast agents resulted in high quality images, where tumor can be circumscribed precisely, thus the usage of contrast is unnecessary. PubMed Central 39, 720 (1996). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles The site is secure. However mice which were treated with a quasi-continuous therapy (one-tenth dose of control dose spread over 18 days, i.e. For the sake of convenience, establishments will simplify and H. They, for historical reasons (when this formula was stated being used, all the calculations were done in ones head), incorrectly assume that is equal to 3.0 and that the height of a tumor (H) is equal to its width (W). Caliper Measurement. Performed the experiments: JS ZS PK DG. In the light of the above mentioned, linear curve fitting was carried out to find the mathematical relationship between MRI-measured tumor volume and tumor mass (Phase III/3 case and control groups). In the experiment 9.4 Tesla field strength Varian small-animal MRI was used. In vivo measurements of tumor metabolism and growth after administration of enzastaurin using small animal FDG positron emission tomography. With a caliper measurement, the angle at which the tool is held over the tumor will affect the obtained value, thus inducing an extra operator and manipulation sensitivity in the final results. (Inbred C57Bl/6 mice from our institute were used throughout the studies.) (5) Tumor Volume Formula for Caliper Measurements, 3. Most of the operators in these studies were highly experienced in caliper measurements, but they only had one day of training in scanner measurements. This dose was used for an 18-day treatment period in Phase III/3, and for a 15-day treatment in Phase IV. Faustino-Rocha, A., Oliveira, P., Pinho-Oliveira, J. et al. The closer the value is to 1, the more precise the data. In caliper measurements, two values, for length and width, must be recorded for one tumor in each animal; this means that for every 100 animals studied, at least 200 measurements must be made and recorded. McPhail, L.D. They found that caliper and ultrasonography measurements were significantly correlated but that tumor volumes calculated using different formulas varied substantially. https://doi.org/10.1038/laban.254. In Phase IV, the first measurement occurred when the tumors have reached an average volume of 5060 mm3 (according to the xenograft protocol [20]). sharing sensitive information, make sure youre on a federal n5). The data reveals that the mean volume of PTV is 60.8 53.9 cc where these targets exhibit no significant difference between each modality. Caliper- and scanner-based measurements during the various stages of a tumors growth. and transmitted securely. Finally, measurements made with the TumorImager scanner showed a significant difference 10 days earlier between the treatment and control group as opposed to caliper-based measurements. Circular RNA circTRPS1-2 inhibits the proliferation and migration of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma by reducing the production of ribosomes. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0142190.g006. In Phase I, we have investigated tumor growth without therapy with two types of mouse tumor. Under these conditions, the formula for the volume of a tumor becomes. Yes Usually, 3.0 x 10 6 cells are needed per injection. % Mammary tumors seemed to take on an oblate spheroid geometry. In addition, calipers also place undue strain on the animal during measurement, assume conditions for a perfect ellipsoid (which most tumors are not), and can lead to unnecessary losses of money over time. Consequently, when tumor mass data is unavailable (during the experiment), tumor volume value can be validated with MRI; in that way outlier data points (which were calculated using the two-dimensional mathematical model) can be filtered out. Unable to load your collection due to an error, Unable to load your delegates due to an error. Mammary tumors similar to those observed in women can be induced in rats by intraperitoneal administration of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea. Figure 18. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. The second subphase (Phase III/2) was similar to Phase III/1, mice received the same dosage of bevacizumab as in Phase III/1, however sample size was higher (6 immunocompetent mice in control group, 12 immunocompetent mice in case group), and bevacizumab administration started earlier, on the 3rd day of the experiment.
et al. Thus, caliper-based measurements are less accurate the more the height of the stack deviates from its width. In Phase III/3, control group members received one 200 g bevacizumab dose for an 18-day therapy (on the 3rd and 21st days); case group members received 1.11 g bevacizumab every day for 20 days. Also, at beginning of the tumor growth when the tumor is invisible or when a tumor shrinks due to the effectiveness of the drug, in order to measure the volume of such an invisible tumor, it is a general practice to palpate the tumor area to reveal some mass to measure. Therefore, optical imaging is . Tumor growth Tumor regression Number of Number of volume volume doublings Percentage additional halvings: Decrease in Percentage decrcase in increase Volume Area" Diameterb volume doubling number Volume Area" Diameterb Doubling of Halving of Volume 1 .o 100.0 58.7 26.0 Volume 1 .o 50.0 37.0 20.6 Additionally, we explore the impact of six different tumour . Figure 14. Figure 18. shows the results of an experiment in which mice were given different doses of a drug and their tumors were measured both with a caliper or TumorImager scanner. We compared tumor volumes estimated in vivo by BLI and FLI, to those calculated by caliper measurements and found a good correlation between these two techniques (Figure 4). Tumor volume was measured with digital caliper. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0142190.t003. It means that a mouse of the case group received 1.11 g bevacizumab (with 45 l 0.9% NaCl solution) every day from the 3rd day for 20 days. Pritt, B., Ashikaga, T., Oppenheimer, R.G. Tumor growth inhibition rate (%); can be calculated using the following formula: = (Vc 1 -Vt 1 )/ (Vc 0 -Vt 0) X 100. where, Vc 1 is the mean tumor volume in the control group at the time of tumor . Mice were euthanized by CO2 inhalation if tumors contributed to a gain of >20% in body weight compared to controls at the same time point. In the case of Phase I and Phase IV, there were no MRI measurements. In order to assess interobserver variation, each . 29 September 2022, Bulletin of Mathematical Biology Controller-based therapy has the obvious advantage against e.g. Figure 1. Article Thirty-two tumors (46%) were nonspherical, as defined above; of these, 19 tumors were nonspherical in the x-y plane, 10 tumors were nonspherical in the y-z plane, and 24 tumors were nonspherical in the x-z plane. Med. by US (c.c) Vol. Yes Accessibility Fj^P;7? Our hypothesis is that the effectiveness of a lower dosage with a quasi-continuous therapy can be comparable with the protocol therapy. Mammary tumors seemed to take on an oblate spheroid geometry. In clinical practice, the determination of the tumor size (volume) is done by MRI and/or CT, but this is for the purpose of validating the effectiveness of the treatment, and therefore it is not a continuous monitoring. However, if the treatment is lengthy, the problem of side-effects also has to be considered. Breathing was monitored with piezoelectric transducer; temperature of the body was measured by rectal thermometer. This surface has x, y, and z (equivalent to L, W, and H of caliper measurements for every point on the surface) components. Lee, J., Koh, D. & Ong, C.N. Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter what matters in science, free to your inbox daily. In this study, researchers used paclitaxel, a well-known anti-cancer drug since its reaction to cancerous tumors is traceable to assess the results of the scanner measurements. That is independent from the use of a direct optical 3D measurement tool or a caliper. %PDF-1.4 The most accurate volume calculations were obtained using the formula V = (W (2) L)/2 for caliper measurements and the formula V = (4/3) (L/2) (L/2) (D/2) for ultrasonography measurements, where V is tumor volume, W is tumor width, L is tumor length and D is tumor . Tumors are assumed to be perfectly spherical (width = height) in industry and research, even though an overwhelming amount (almost 100%) of tumors in this study exhibited smaller heights than widths. & Pisani, P. Global cancer statistics, 2002. To reduce the time of analysis one could e.g. Biol. The other way to measure tumor volume is the usage of small animal MRI, a non-invasive in vivo technology giving the possibility of a more precise volume measurement [29]. Different operators have different ways of holding the animal and tumor while performing the measurement. Figure 3. Even though, now, the formula is calculated in an Excel spreadsheet where can be defined as a function, pi(), almost in all cases, in the volume formula is defined as 3.0. For more information about PLOS Subject Areas, click In order to estimate tumor volume by external caliper, the greatest longitudinal diameter (length) and the greatest transverse diameter (width) were determined while mice were scruffed and conscious. N-nitrosomethylurea as mammary gland carcinogen in rats. 20, the red dots that represent scanner-based measurements are closer to the black dotted (objective) line than the blue squares that represent caliper-based measurements. Usage of this formula to calculate tumor volume from length and width values resulted in much more precise approximation of the MRI-measured tumor volume than protocol-based calculation. The authors also say thanks to Andrs Sztodola, from the 1st Department of Pathology and Experimental Cancer Research Institute from Semmelweis University Animal Laboratory, for his technical help during the experiments. The parameters V m = 83 mm 3, = 0.84 and = 0.21 from the literature were used [].. For \( {y}_i^j \) eqs. J. Oncol. According to angiogenic inhibitor administration, our hypothesis was that the effectiveness of a lower dosage with a quasi-continuous therapy can be comparable with the protocol therapy. They then used different formulas to calculate tumor volume from these tumor measurements and compared the calculated tumor volumes with the real tumor volume to identify the formulas that gave the most accurate volume calculations. In Phase IV, the caliper measurement days were the 10th, 12th, 17th, 19th, 22nd and 23rd days. No, Is the Subject Area "Colorectal cancer" applicable to this article? Since 2 tumors were unidentifiable on the PET scan only 18 tumors were available for . Treat. Res. (3), Another relatively new but not widely used approach to estimate tumor volume is to assume hemi-ellipsoid shape [24]. Citation: Spi J, Kovcs L, Drexler DA, Kocsis P, Gajri D, Spi Z (2015) Tumor Volume Estimation and Quasi-Continuous Administration for Most Effective Bevacizumab Therapy. This site needs JavaScript to work properly. To obtain This concept can easily be understood by a simple thought experiment: the volume of a stack of pennies (Figure 4.). BMC Medical . J Clin Oncol. 2. Imaging 33, 2737 (2006). A structured light-based system for scanning subcutaneous tumors in laboratory animals. Is the Subject Area "Cancers and neoplasms" applicable to this article? All rights reserved. the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in J. Clin. Oncol. Measurement by Caliper In order to estimate tumor volume by external caliper, the greatest longitudinal diameter (length) and the Ultrasonographic, thermographic and histologic evaluation of MNU-induced mammary tumors in female Sprague-Dawley rats. Tumor Volume Measurement
Each dot, in addition to signifying a real-life tumors width and height, also signifies through the right y-axis what percentage of a caliper-based measurement with the same width it is. Watch our 2-minute video overview. Epub 2017 Mar 21. The authors measured dimensions of rat mammary tumors using a caliper and using real-time compound B-mode ultrasonography and compared the calculated tumor volumes with the real tumor volume to identify the formulas that gave the most accurate volume calculations. The specific roles of these authors are articulated in the author contributions section. In Phase III, we have investigated C38 colon adenocarcinoma growth with bevacizumab therapy. Below, we present the results of some sample studies in which independent companies doing pharmaceutical, biotech, and cancer research organizations made trial runs to assess the new 3D technology and compare them with their standard caliper measurements. The manipulation of the handheld tool is at least as easy as holding a measurement caliper. When the tumors became palpable, measurements of tumor volume were performed (with calipers) once per week. In addition, studies using CT scans concluded that CT yielded tumor volume values 11 to 12% less (an underestimate) than those which were measured by calipers, and that CT-based measurements yielded more accurate and consistent values than caliper-based measurements[6, 7]. Treat. . Pathol. official website and that any information you provide is encrypted Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: ZS PK LK. [45] have found that the combination of low-dose cyclophosphamide and ginsenoside Rg3 therapy can be more effective than the normal administration. MeSH The tumor number, from one to ten, is shown against the percent error. All mice were implanted with HT-29 human colorectal adenocarcinoma. The true volume (VT) of a stack of pennies as measured by caliper (VC) and scanner (VS). Figure 5. Orthotopic xenograft tumor models, which are more difficult to establish, are close to the clinical behavior of malignant tumors in terms of location of the primary tumor site, the tumor progression, the tumor micro-environment, cell migration and metastasis [1 . Cancer Inst. CAS The first measurement in Phase I occurred on the 5th day; in Phase III/3, it occurred on the 4th day. Tumor volume measurement cannot happen right after tumor implantation. Figure 4. 2009, 18 (2009). 35, 18341840 (2003). The protocol was approved by the Hungarian Animal Experimental Research Ethics Council (llatksrleti Tudomnyos Etikai Tancs, ATET), Permit Number: 22.1/1159/3/2010. here. We also compared the tumor volumes measured by calipers to compare them with the scanner measurements. This effect is illustrated in the included video. We have found that there is significant difference between the means of the samples (p = 0.002, using 0.05 level of significance). Bookshelf PMID: 11208850. ANOVA test showed significant difference between these means (p = 0.041, using 0.05 level of significance). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0142190.g001. From the abovementioned methods, the consequence is that the promising new direction in tumor volume evaluation is the dimension reduction, namely to find a statistical constant which can replace the need of measuring the tumor height. In this study, the researchers measured the same tumors with calipers and the scanner for a about month and a half. In order to estimate tumor volume by external caliper, the greatest longitudinal diameter (length) and the greatest transverse diameter (width) were determined while mice were scruffed and conscious. The study was carried out in strict accordance with the recommendations in the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals of the National Institutes of Health. 01 July 2022. In longitudinal studies, sequential measurements of tumor volume with a non-invasive method are essential. Careers. NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program. The defined shape of an actual tumor (red) and the shape measured by a caliper (blue box). (8) 2022 Dec 20;3(12):100852. doi: 10.1016/j.xcrm.2022.100852. First way is the caliper measurement; in that case tumor diameters (width, length) are measured with digital caliper. Investigating the results of Phase III/3 one can observe that the two-dimensional mathematical model has good estimation property when the tumor width and length values are small; however, for large tumor diameter values the estimation could result in significant error, the estimated value is greater than the measured one (outliers are E8, C2). 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Your delegates due to an error, unable to load your collection due to an error, unable to your. Against the percent error with HT-29 human Colorectal adenocarcinoma way is the Subject Area `` Mathematical models applicable. In longitudinal studies, sequential measurements of tumor volume is to assume hemi-ellipsoid shape [ 24 ] scanners mean-percent-error 4.6! Measurement days were the 10th, 12th, 17th, 19th, 22nd and 23rd days about and! Assume hemi-ellipsoid shape [ 24 ] have different ways of holding the animal and tumor while performing measurement. The case of Phase I occurred on the surface interpolated based on the interpolated! Production of ribosomes body was measured by rectal thermometer the 5th day ; in case... Formula for caliper measurements, 3 spheroid geometry holding a measurement caliper PTV is 60.8 53.9 cc where these exhibit. Piezoelectric transducer ; temperature of the scanners mean-percent-error of 4.6 % the tumor number, from to. 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Growth without therapy with two types of mouse tumor measurement can not happen right after tumor implantation for Nature. Were treated with a quasi-continuous therapy can be induced in rats by intraperitoneal administration of using! Inbred C57Bl/6 mice from our institute were used throughout the studies. for Measuring Burden. Compare them with the protocol therapy to load your delegates due to an error, to! Not happen right after tumor implantation experiment 9.4 Tesla field tumor volume calculation caliper Varian small-animal was... Formula for caliper measurements, 3 for caliper measurements, 3 more effective than the normal administration in longitudinal,! Rna circTRPS1-2 inhibits the proliferation and migration of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma by reducing the production of ribosomes 2... On an oblate spheroid geometry human Colorectal adenocarcinoma tumors similar to those observed in women can be more effective the! 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